Наукові конференції України, V Міжнародна нпк молодих вчених "Селекція, генетика та технології вирощування сільськогосподарських культур"

Розмір шрифту: 
А. К. Корочкіна, М. С. Мороз

Остання редакція: 2017-04-30

Тези доповіді

The most significant insect pests of mushroom cultivation belong to the Order Diptera (two-winged flies) comprising three families Sciaridae (sciarids), Phoridae (phorids) and Cecidomyiidae (cecids). Lycoriella mali Fitch. (Diptera: Sciaridae) infests mushroom crops early in the crop cycle. Samples of adult flies from isolated mushroom houses growing Portabella mushrooms were significantly heavier then those from oyster mushroom houses, whereas flies from shiitake mushroom houses were lightest in weight.  Flies collected from isolated Portabella mushroom houses were reared on four strains and species of Agaricus and Pleurotus mushrooms. After the adults emerged, females were weighed, mated, and allowed to oviposit. Adult sciarids are small (c.3-4 mm), delicate, two-winged flies which are dark grey/ black with large compound eyes and long, threadlike antennae. Females are generally larger than males and their abdomens are often distended with eggs.  Adults do not fly readily but move rapidly across the growing surface in brief jumping flights. On average, a mated female can lay 150-170 white, oval eggs singly, or in groups within the growing substrate.  Depending on temperature, these eggs will hatch within three to four days to produce larvae. Sciarid larvae are white, elongate, legless maggots with a distinctive black shiny head.  At this stage the larvae feed on developing mycelium and uncontrolled will burrow into pinheads and small buttons forming a sponge-like mass. Mature larvae are approximately 8.0 mm in length and can remove mycelial attachments at the base of the stalk. Sciarid infestations in Phase I compost should be eliminated by efficient pasteurisation. Subsequent infestations are caused by adult females, which are attracted to the fermentation odours produced during compost cool-down. Environmental conditions during the spawn-running period facilitate the completion of a generation of sciarids within 2-3 weeks. Flies were reared for four generations on each host mushroom mycelium then switched to different host mushrooms. Overall, the hybrid strain of Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Imbach (Agaricales: Agaricomycetideae) was the most favorable host for L. mali, whereas the wild strain of A. bisporus was the least favorable host. Mushroom hosts influence developmental time, survivorship, weight, and reproduction of L. mali the control rate of F2-generation phorid larvae was 75% and was possibly caused by the presence of new infective juvenile nematodes recycled in F2-generation sciarid larvae. Diflubenzuron did not significantly reduce phorid numbers. The use of nematodes is promising for this high value crop. An additional advantage of this biological control agent is the possibility that the nematodes can sur-zive and attack the next generation of flies.

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