Наукові конференції України, V Міжнародна нпк молодих вчених "Селекція, генетика та технології вирощування сільськогосподарських культур"

Розмір шрифту: 
М. С. Мороз

Остання редакція: 2017-05-01

Тези доповіді

The formation of biotic complexes in agrocenoses directly is affected by all components of the process of growing crops. In recent decades, anthropogenic factor causes an unprecedented pace transform ecosystems. Artificially created permanent and rapid changes in anthropogenic biotic and abiotic origin affect the adaptation mechanisms of natural insect groups appear on their morphological physiological, genetic condition causing changes of the viability and performance. The presence or introduction of fodder plants with different ecological strategies (competitors plants resistant to stress and ruderal segetal) also affect differently the ontogeny, ethology, polyphagia, and spread of insect phytophagous. In the agricultural sector of Ukraine for the production of plant products unjustified increase is observed in areas of monocultures, stable uncontested use of fertilizers, crop protection chemicals. This can lead to irreversible incident on trophics niche, interspecific competition, which is also the dominant steady decline and even extinction of a large number of species of insects.

In view of the above, to develop effective measures to control the number of herbivores in agrobiocenosis there is continuous monitoring of species composition, abundance, distribution and biocenotical communications of beneficial insects.

The technology of breeding Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. Aphidophage is relatively easily propagated in vitro and reproduced in agrocenoses. It is established that the larvae Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. have high search ability, aphids fed more than 65 species. Grown in vitro Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond is able to control the number of aphids and increase their numbers in agrocenoses.

In search of colonies of aphids adults Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. can fly nicely, and in the absence of strong winds, can overcome a distance of over 100 meters. When issuing Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond., females equally lay eggs throughout the area where the aphids. Females Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. lay eggs in proportion to the number of aphids in the colony.

Experimentally found that the operation of the laboratory culture Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. can be only in the appropriate range of environmental factors in which adaptive changes of the population occure. In the standard method of growing laboratory and industrial culture Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. one undestand its manufacture from generation to generation by using standardized diets and methods of cultivation. Changes of cultivation conditions Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. should be only small, gradual. Experimentally one found that the proposed technology and the use of the breeding Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. provides high quality of biological control in agrocenoses herbivores and it is economically viable. Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. predator is effective against aphids. Using Aphidoletes aphidimyza Rond. the percentage of plants populated by aphids decreased from 45-57 to 3-9 %.

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