Наукові конференції України, Сучасні напрями селекційного удосконалення пшениці

Розмір шрифту: 
O. A. Avksentyeva, N. Ju. Taran, L. M. Batsmanova

Остання редакція: 2017-05-28

Тези доповіді

It is known, that duration of ontogenesis, type of development (spring/winter) and speed of development in soft wheat Triticum aestivum L. determined by the system of VRN genes (Stelmach et al., 2000; Cockram et al., 2007). One of the factors limited the productivity of soft wheat is affection by vascular diseases induced by different types of micromycete of g. Fusarium (Grutcyk, 2013). In vitro is a modern model system in phytobiological research and in present days is widely used in cell selection for receiving stable to diseases plant varieties (Bavol et al., 2009; Kornya, 2011). Thus, in forming of resistance to plant pathogens, age, plant ontogenesis phase put through biotic stress are of the essence, it is interesting to learn predetermination by genes of wheat development rates in forming of biological mechanisms of resistance to biotic stress. The aim of our work is to research the influence of exometabolites phytopathogens of g. Fusarium on callus cultures isogenic wheat lines differ by development rates. The objects of research were near isogenic by genes VRN lines (NILs) of soft wheat Triticum aestivum L., Mironovskaya 808 sort and phytopathogenic micromycetes Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium moniliforme. Primary callus cultures of isogenic lines were obtained using in the capacity of explants mature embryo. The cultivation was conducted in nutrient medium Murashige and Skoog (MS) containing growth stimulant – 2,4-D (2 mg/l) in thermostat with temperature 26°C in the darkness. Phytopathogens exometabolites influence g. Fusarium was researched by adding cultural filtrate of micromycetes into nutrient medium MS in the ratio 1:20. The cultivation of callus cultures of isogenic lines was conducted during four weeks analyzing growing indicators (callus areas, growing index, length and number of cells of callus tissues). The results of our experiments showed that in conditions of in vitro cultures exometabolites phytopathogens F. oxysporum insignificantly and F. moniliforme considerably stimulate the growth of callus cultures of fast-developing isogenic lines VRN Ala and VRN Dla. Growing index of callus cultures VRN Bla and sort (all vrn genes are recessive) under the action of exometabolites F. oxysporum is reducing and under the action of                      F. moniliforme, on the contrary, is growing. Application of cultural filtrate into the medium of callus cultivation on their cytological characteristics has influences. Isolines differ by development rates differently react on exometabolites plant pathogens. In fast-developing, in conditions in vivo, isolines VRN Ala and VRN Dla in callus culture under the influence of phytopathogens the number of cells is reducing, but their length is growing. In slowly-developing isolines Vrn Bla and sort, on the contrary, the number of cells is growing, but its size is reducing. It is necessary to note, that exometabolites F. oxysporum are more phytotoxic, which is seen in changing of all the morpho-physiological callus cultures indicators in comparison to F. monoliforme. Among researched isogenic lines of wheat, the most resistant to pathogens by all indicators is isoline VRN Ala, characterized by fast rates of growing plant conditions of in vivo, and the less resistant – slowly-developing isoline VRN Bla. The received results allow us to suppose that VRN genes, determining the rates of development in conditions in vivo indirectly in participate in forming of resistance to exometabolites phytopathogens g. Fusarium in conditions in vitro.

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