Наукові конференції України, ІІІ Міжнародна науково-практична конференція «Світові рослинні ресурси: стан та перспективи розвитку»

Розмір шрифту: 
Development of wheat variety with rounded grains
C. P. Mehdiyeva, N. Kh. Aminov

Остання редакція: 2017-06-08

Тези доповіді

Grain shape and size are among the most important agronomic traits due to their significant effect on grain weight, milling yield, and market price. Despite the fact that an abundant variation in grain shape has been found in wheat and its relatives, compared with the size of wheat grain its shape was not the component for strong artificial selection during the domestication process and considered a relatively recent breeding trait suggested by the attempts to improve the yield and quality of food crops. Grain shape plays a major role in seed cleaning and sorting, and it influences the bulk behavior of seeds by determining the angle of their repose. There is a suggestion based on some theoretical models predicting that milling yield could be increased by optimizing grain shape with large and spherical or rounded grains being the optimum grain morphology. Previous studies described grain size and shapes emerged as independent traits in primitive and improved wheat germplasm, including the results obtained using the D genome synthetic hexaploids. Here, we are reporting on production of new stable wheat hybrid line ‘1102’ (genome AABBDD, 2n = 42) with the rounded grains from the cross between hexaploid triticale ‘ABR’ (genome AABBRR, 2n = 42) and synthetic hexaploid wheat ‘ABD’ (genome AABBDD, 2n = 42). Triticale ‘ABR’ (genome AABBRR, 2n = 42) is locally produced in the Genetic Resources Institute of ANAS by the second author of this abstract in 1974 and was used in the cross of current study as a female or maternal plant. This triticale differentiated from other triticales by its originating from hybridization between Kihara’s synthetic wheat ‘ABD’ (T. durum × Ae. taushii, genome AABBDD, 2n = 42) and wild rye Secale cereale ssp. segetale (genome RR, 2n = 14). The synthetic wheat plant ‘ABD’ was locally produced by cross of ‘AD’ (T. boeoticum × Ae. taushii, genome AADD, 2n = 28) with goatgrass species Ae. speltoides (genome SS, 2n = 14) in the Genetic Resources Institute of ANAS by the same author in 1982 and employed in the cross to triticale ‘ABR’ as a pollen parent. These both parental plants of ‘1102’ are carrying the D genome incorporated from Ae. taushii and have normal, i. e. nonspherical grains. Note, that the recessive s gene, which is determining the spherical grains in hexaploid wheats, have not been found in Ae. taushii so far. Hense we are planning to check experimentally if the spherical-grain genes of recombinant hybrid line ‘1102’ and hexaploid wheat species T. sphaerococcum are allelic. Having the desirable grain roundness the line ‘1102’ has not the high yield components that are the next: heading date are 166 days, plant height is the 88 cm, spikes length is the 7,5 cm, number of spikelets per spike is the 17, number of kernels per spike is the 47, kernel weight per spike is the 2, 42 g, 1000 kernel weight is the 41,67 g. For the improving of these yield traits and develop a new cultivar on the basis of line ‘1102’ the latter will be involved in the hybridization with the varieties ‘Sharada’ and ‘Eremeyevna’ that are relesead recently by Federal State Budgetary “Scientific-Research Institution of Agriculture named after P. P. Lukyanenko”. These varieties are the first mentioned having the spherical-shaped grains and their hybridization with the line ‘1102’ could improve its yield traits while the desirable grain morphology will be maintained during segregation.

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